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Interoception is an internal sensory system in which the internal physical and emotional states of the body are noticed, recognised/identified and responded to. Interoception skills are required for a range of basic and more advanced functions such as knowing when to go to the toilet, being aware that you are becoming angry or upset and being able to manage your emotions proactively. When children and young people have not yet developed interoception skills they will struggle with not only their own emotions but with social interactions and even just being around others may be difficult for them to manage.

The following resources support the two Interoception webinars presented during July and August 2020.


Research Articles

Click the links below to download open access research articles on Interoception. References for these articles, and further articles, are available further below:

Discrepancies between dimensions of interoception in Autism Implications for emotion and anxiety.

Interoception and Emotion.

Interoception and Mental Health: A Roadmap.

Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2019). General capabilities.

Barrett LF, Quigley KS, Hamilton P. 2016 An active inference theory of allostasis and interoception in depression. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 371: 20160011.

Craig, A. D., & Craig, A. D. (2009). How do you feel--now? The anterior insula and human awareness. Nature reviews neuroscience, 10(1). Doi: 10.1038/nrn2555

Critchley, H. D., & Garfinkel, S. N. (2017). Interoception and emotion. Current opinion in psychology, 17, 7-14.

Davies, Catherine, Di Rodd, Kerry Parsons, and Emma Goodall. "The 8th Sense: Interoception." DECD, Adelaide

Department for Education, South Australia. (2019). Interoception Activity Guide 301.

Department for Education, South Australia. (2019). Ready to Learn - Interoception Kit*.

Fiacconi, C. M., Kouptsova, J. E., & Köhler, S. (2017). A role for visceral feedback and interoception in feelings-of-knowing. Consciousness and cognition, 53, 70-80.

Garfinkel, S. N., Tiley, C., O'Keeffe, S., Harrison, N. A., Seth, A. K., & Critchley, H. D. (2016). Discrepancies between dimensions of interoception in autism: Implications for emotion and anxiety. Biological psychology, 114, 117-126.

Goodall, E. (2016). Interoception 101. DECD, Adelaide.

Goodall, E. (2020). Interoception as a proactive tool to decrease challenging behaviour. Scan, 39(2).

Hackham East Primary School (2019). Our Interoception Journey. SERU, Adelaide.

Healthy Possibilities. (2019). Home [YouTube channel].

Khalsa, S. S., Adolphs, R., Cameron, O. G., Critchley, H. D., Davenport, P. W., Feinstein, J. S., ... & Meuret, A. E. (2018). Interoception and mental health: a roadmap. Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, 3(6), 501-513.

Mahler, K. (2015). Interoception: The eighth sensory system. Shawnee, KS: AAPC.

Mehling, W. E., Chesney, M. A., Metzler, T. J., Goldstein, L. A., Maguen, S., Geronimo, C., ... & Neylan, T. C. (2018). A 12‐week integrative exercise program improves self‐reported mindfulness and interoceptive awareness in war veterans with posttraumatic stress symptoms. Journal of clinical psychology, 74(4), 554-565. DOI: 10.1002/jclp.22549

Schauder, K. B., Mash, L. E., Bryant, L. K. & Cascio, C. J. (2015). Interoceptive ability and body awareness in autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 131, 193-200. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2014.11.002

Shah, P., Catmur, C., & Bird, G. (2017). From heart to mind: linking interoception, emotion, and theory of mind. Cortex; a journal devoted to the study of the nervous system and behavior, 93, 220.

Shah, P. (2016). Interoception: the eighth sensory system: practical solutions for improving self-regulation, self-awareness and social understanding of individuals with autism spectrum and related disorders. J Autism Dev Disord (2016) 46: 3193.

Tsakiris M, Critchley H. 2016 Interoception beyond homeostasis: affect, cognition and mental health. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 371: 20160002.

Weiss, C., Tsakiris, M., Haggard, P., & Schütz-Bosbach, S. (2014). Agency in the sensorimotor system and its relation to explicit action awareness. Neuropsychologia, 52, 82-92.